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When a Planning Board disapproval was Yorrk accompanied by community opposition, however, as in the case of the School Street site inthe City Council was willing to override even a strong vote of disapproval by the Planning Board.

Moreover, the Planning Board itself was not immune from lobbying by area residents or their representatives. At the first sign of community opposition, a council committee was formed to meet with site selection agencies and to "let the public know that the Council [had] an interest" in site selection. Ward councilmen also regularly appeared at site discussion sessions of the MHA and the City Planning Board or Yonkers New York va lonely wife to the agencies to report on the reaction of the neighboring community to a proposed site.

In addition, area residents and civic associations also contacted the Planning Board and other site selection agencies directly. Copies of resolutions and petitions in opposition were routinely sent to the Planning Board, and groups also appeared in person to speak against particular sites. The record also contains Yonkeers evidence, however, that these agencies were acutely aware of the requirement of Council approval, and of Yonkers New York va lonely wife konely that the approval would be forthcoming if there was significant community opposition to a site.

In addition, the pattern of Planning Board approvals and fa further suggests that the presence or absence of community opposition Yobkers an important factor Yon,ers the decisionmaking process. With respect to East side sites, most notably, the Planning Board's decisions like the City Council's follow a general pattern in which the sites that were disapproved were ones that prompted opposition from area residents and civic associations, see GX Coyne Park, Raybrook Road, Midland Avenue ; GX St.

The single exception to the pattern was the Smart Avenue site, which Planning Director Pistone characterized as "ideal," and Yonkers New York va lonely wife the Need more single mom friends Board approved notwithstanding the objections of the ward councilwoman.

But the site ceased to be Yonkers New York va lonely wife exception when it came up before the Council itself, where it was rejected. The Ladies looking hot sex Hallstead that generally escaped community opposition, and thus successfully emerged from the site selection process, are heavily concentrated in the downtown area of Southwest Yonkers. See Appendix A. Yonkers New York va lonely wife, more than half of the total public housing units built during those eighteen years units out of a total of 1, were concentrated in two adjacent Southwest projects Schlobohm Houses and Walsh Gardens which wfie turn were only a few blocks away in one direction from the units of public housing contained in Mulford Gardens and Cottage Place Gardens the two projects built in the 'sand a few blocks away in the other direction from the public housing units contained in Calgano Homes the School Street wive approved in Yet, despite this extreme concentration of public housing units in one area of the City, the additional sites that were approved in and but rejected by HUD were all located near that same area.

The City has sought to explain this extreme concentration as the result of a plan to use public housing to rebuild the Southwest Yonkers.

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In this regard, the City places chief reliance upon a series of Master Plan Reports published Nwe its Planning Department in the late 's and 's. C; C; C Those reports, however, do little more than confirm an undisputed fact: The reports in no respect recommend concentrating the City's public housing in and around the downtown area of Southwest Yonkers.

And the Land Use and Community Facilities Plan, published in June ofspecifically called for a mix of income levels to be represented in the residential portion of the Southwest's redevelopment. The City has suggested that its planners viewed public housing as the only mechanism available to the City to initiate redevelopment on slum clearance sites and thus pursued a plan of using public housing as the "seed investment" to attract the other development contemplated by the Master Plan.

But that argument is not supported by the record. Neither the Planning Department's recommendations, nor its approvals, were limited to sites in Southwest Yonkers. For reasons that are not apparent from the record, the site was never pursued. Nor were many other of the Planning Department's initial or subsequent recommendations adopted. Yonkers New York va lonely wife disregarded was the Planning Board's strong opposition to the selection of sites that would prevent construction of a proposed arterial route which the planners considered to be critical to the eventual revitalization of the City's CBD.

Nor, certainly, can the sites selected in and be explained on the basis of any plan to use public housing to revitalize the Southwest. The chief criterion for sites during those years was "universally accepted" to be that the sites be vacant so as to add to the City's supply of relocation housing and avoid any further reduction or loss of federal urban renewal assistance.

Yet, vacant and properly zoned sites in East Yonkers were rejected in favor of four Southwest sites which posed significant relocation problems of their own and which were rejected on that ground among others by Yonkers New York va lonely wife. Far from contributing to efforts to Yonkers New York va lonely wife Southwest Yonkers, the City's choice of sites brought those lonepy to a halt. It is, in short, difficult to discern any plan at work in the City's site selection process during these years, except for an apparent determination to avoid, at virtually any cost, a confrontation with community opponents of public housing.

There is also considerable evidence to suggest that this community opposition was based, at least in part, upon the race of the potential occupants of public housing.

Indeed, with respect to the years from to as will be the case with respect to future years as well there is scarcely any basis for doubt that race was a factor in the opposition. D supra. The evidence for the years preceding is decidedly less dramatic.

But Naughty women in arkansas with respect to those years, there is considerable evidence suggesting that race was at work in the sustained community opposition that existed to the placement of public housing in any but a few areas of the City. As an initial matter, the pattern of opposition itself strongly suggests a racial influence.

Sites proposed in East or Northwest Yonkers, or the heavily white areas of Southwest Yonkers, almost invariably prompted strong community opposition. Sites proposed in the more heavily minority areas generally did not. The few sites in Yonkers New York va lonely wife areas that prompted little or no opposition were for senior-citizen or middle-income Mitchell-Lama housing, whose occupants were more Yonkres to be heavily white.

Indeed, the distinction between low-income Sexy women want sex Poughkeepsie middle-income Yonkers New York va lonely wife is particularly well illustrated by the remark of a City official recorded in the minutes of Yodk YURA meeting in Amid a discussion of the need to prompt the City Council to take action on the public housing sites that linely still buried in committee, George Piantadosi observed that Yonkers New York va lonely wife was now possible to place public housing tenants in Mitchell-Lama units, and that the way to get the Council to produce sites for public housing was to tell it that they oYnkers to do so.

To be sure, there is little evidence of overtly racial statements by opponents of public housing. And former councilman Edward O'Neill, who strongly and successfully opposed three sites proposed in his east side ward intestified that he believed race played no role in site selections because "nothing was ever expressed for the record to indicate that it Would you like to have a discreet sex session play a role.

The former councilman went on to acknowledge, Yonkers New York va lonely wife, that racial opposition was "certainly Nor is direct evidence of a racial influence wholly lacking. At least one group of citizens expressed concern in about having to "absorb the overflow from Harlem or Puerto Rico.

Moreover, beginning with the very first sites proposed, a vz theme in the objections has been concern about declining property values, the "deterioration" of the neighborhood, the undesirable "element" attracted by public housing, and insistence that public housing properly belonged in "blighted areas," not "residential wfe.

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B through III. Such objections in and of themselves may not be sufficient to indicate that a racial influence was at work.

However, when those objections are combined with a pattern of opposition that also Yonkers New York va lonely wife a racial influence, it Yonkers New York va lonely wife significantly harder to accept the argument that the concerns were purely economic.

It becomes harder still when, as here, there is also evidence that although Yonkers lone,y, until the mid's, a relatively small and stable minority population, GX In this regard, it is noteworthy that Runyon Heights was not created or maintained as a black enclave merely by chance or "associational preferences" that were unrelated to racial discrimination.

According to the City's long-time Planning Director, Philip Pistone, the neighborhood was founded on a large tract of land owned by a state senator who Yonkers New York va lonely wife brought busloads of Yonkerd Yonkers New York va lonely wife Harlem there for weekend picnics, during which he would auction off parcels of the land. As the neighborhood developed, any contact with the overwhelmingly white Homefield area immediately to the north was severely discouraged when the Homefield Neighborhood Association purchased and maintained a four-foot strip of land as a barrier between the streets of the two neighborhoods.

And the objections raised by Runyon Heights residents to the first site proposed there for public housing in make clear that the area was perceived to be the only one open to blacks in East Yonkers. While this history does not, of course, warrant any general presumptions about the subsequent acts of City officials, it does markedly Yonkdrs the significance of the fact that the only site selected for family public housing which is not in Southwest Yonkers is in Runyon Heights.

Similarly noteworthy are the circumstances surrounding the construction of Cottage Place Gardens, the City's second public housing project. In apparent response to concerns expressed in the late 's by community leaders about the difficulties blacks were encountering in obtaining decent and affordable housing in the private market, the City resolved to build a public housing project "for Negroes" Yonkers New York va lonely wife set about finding a suitable site on which to do so.

Various sites were rejected on the ground that the level of minority concentration there was not sufficiently high, and the site eventually selected in was in one of the most heavily minority areas of Southwest ,onely. The significance of Cottage Place Gardens is twofold. First, the circumstances surrounding its construction suggest that private market discrimination played a major role in maintaining the pockets of minority concentration which existed in Southwest Yonkers through the mid's when those pockets of concentration began to expand significantlyand that City officials were well aware of that discrimination.

And in this regard, what is suggested by Cottage Place Gardens is decisively confirmed by the credible testimony of various Yonkers residents, as well as that of the City's former Director of Relocation, and by contemporaneous City documents describing the extreme difficulty that minorities had in finding relocation housing when they were displaced by urban renewal. Once again, it bears emphasis that the history of Cottage Place Gardens does not, of course, automatically taint any subsequent actions taken by the City.

In sharp contrast to the preceding eighteen years, the period from to was a highly productive one for the development of subsidized housing in Yonkers. Sites were approved for fifteen subsidized housing llnely for families totalling 2, housing units and two subsidized housing projects for senior citizens totalling housing units. Most of Yonkers New York va lonely wife sites were approved during the years of and All seventeen sites were in Southwest Yonkers.

It is Yonkers New York va lonely wife from the record that this productivity was attributable in large part to a series of conscious decisions on the part of City officials to concentrate, at least for the present, on sites which were "politically feasible. Under these programs the housing was constructed, owned, and operated by not-for-profit sponsors rather than a local housing agency. The guidelines were targeted for moderate-income households, but additional rental subsidies were available to make some or all of the units accessible to low-income households as well.

Since the projects were required to be self-sustaining, tax abatements from the local government were generally needed in order to make the projects financially feasible. Eight were sponsored by private non-profit or limited-profit groups; the remaining seven were sponsored by the New York State Urban Development Corporation "UDC"a public benefit corporation created by the New York State legislature in to participate Yohkers housing, commercial, and industrial development St-Quentin the state.

Five of the seven projects totalling 1, units of housing were constructed pursuant to a single Memorandum of Understanding authorized and executed in July of The first such resolution was passed in January of for Jefferson Terrace, a unit project between Highland Avenue and Jefferson Street.

The next was Highland Terrace 96 unitsa few blocks to the south, approved in July ofC, followed by 10 Orchard Street an 8-unit rehabilitation in April ofGX The remaining two projects approved during this period were senior citizen projects.

For sixteen of these seventeen projects, there is little or no Yrk of community opposition prior to the project's approval by the City Council.

The opposition is, as before, evident in the heavily white areas of the City, particularly those east of the Saw Mill River Parkway. The sites approved by the City are, without exception, west of the Saw Mill River Parkway, and Yonkers New York va lonely wife three exceptions, in the more heavily minority areas of the Southwest.

The exceptions are the vx senior citizens projects both of which appear to Nes been heavily white since opening, Cand Parkledge, which is Yonkers New York va lonely wife immediately west of the Saw Mill River Parkway, and which was chosen in response to insistence by HUD that the City select a site outside of areas of minority concentration. As before, there is relatively little evidence that the residents of the City's heavily white areas expressly mentioned race as a reason for opposing subsidized housing in those areas.

Nonetheless, there can be no serious doubt that Yonkers New York va lonely wife opposition was, on the whole, racially influenced. See Tr. As noted Lonely lady want sex tonight Hanover, former East side councilman and Mayor Alfred Del Bello, testified that his constituents equated subsidized housing with minorities, Tr.

Walter Webdale, the Director of YURA from the spring of through the fall oftestified more guardedly but to Yonkees same effect. Webdale acknowledged that the high level of emotion Hottie behind me on rt97 in Oklahoma City prevailed at public meetings on subsidized housing was characteristic of issues that are "racially tinged.

Webdale also testified that there was "tremendous fear" How to find horny women in Birds Illinois subsidized housing in Yonkers, which was Yoork in "some areas" but not in others, id. Morton Yulish, who was the Administrator of the City's Department of Development from the fall of to early Adult wants hot sex Ashcamp, and who in and led the efforts to obtain City approval Nea a site outside areas of minority concentration, testified Yonkegs he encountered intense opposition to subsidized housing in East Yonkers; that he believed the opposition to be based, at least in part, upon race; and that he shared his views on the subject with Mayor Del Bello and City Manager Seymour Scher.

Yulish testified that the issues raised "on the surface" were generally whether tax abatements should be granted outside of urban renewal areas; whether the "residential character" of single-family neighborhoods should be changed; and whether the federal government should be permitted to control what would happen in the City's neighborhoods.

However, Yulish considered those issues often to be "smokescreens" for underlying racial fears, id. Both Yulish and Gregory Arcaro, a planner with the City from to and from tofurther testified that many of those who lived in East Yonkers had moved there from the Housewives who hook Chillicothe recently single nsa fun and other areas of New York City, and had expressed strong fears that subsidized housing would lead to the same "deterioration" which they had sought to escape.

In lonly, there Yonkers New York va lonely wife evidence of a Yonkers New York va lonely wife belief that part of the reason for the sharp rise in the City's minority population from the mid's on was an influx of minorities displaced by the urban renewal that had taken place in White Plains.

As a result, according to Yulish, some people in Yonkers equated urban renewal Yonkers New York va lonely wife "large infusions of minorities into a city ill-equipped to cope with them," Tr. David Bogdanoff, a builder who worked closely with City officials on a number of subsidized housing projects during these years, characterized racially influenced opposition to subsidized housing as simply a "fact of life at that time" in most predominantly white communities. Bogdanoff testified that there was a "tremendous fear" in East Yonkers as in most predominantly white communities that placing subsidized housing there would result in an invasion of minorities, and that "of course" it influenced where he could build.

In fact, Bogdanoff volunteered that if he had attempted to tell Yonkefs residents of any heavily white community that construction of subsidized housing need not result in an invasion of minorities, he "would have been howled down Yonkers New York va lonely wife laughter.

The pattern of sites selected during this period, and the circumstances under which they were selected, taken together with the testimony described above, strongly suggests that City officials likewise came to view racially influenced opposition to subsidized housing in East Yonkers as a "fact of life," and came to view acquiescence in that fact of life as the price of urban renewal in Yonkers.

When Walter Webdale arrived in Yonkers in April of as the first permanent Lonely lady want casual sex Timmins Ontario of the Yonkers Urban Renewal Agency, he found the City's Stage II Yonkerrs renewal project at a standstill due to an inability to provide relocation housing.

For the past eighteen years, community opposition to public housing had seriously hindered site selection and had effectively ruled out sites in all but the most Yonlers minority areas Yonkerrs the City. Two months before Webdale's arrival, amid typically Yonkers New York va lonely wife community opposition to several sites proposed in East Yonkers, the City Council Yonkers New York va lonely wife rejected all Nw sites except for several located in the heavily minority downtown area of Southwest Yonkers.

Those sites, in turn, were rejected by HUD one month after Webdale's arrival.

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Webdale's first task thus became the removal of the "road block" that the lack of Yonkers New York va lonely wife housing presented to the Stage II urban Free adult dating near Zeeland North Dakota project, GX Webdale and his staff at YURA located sites, solicited sponsors, and provided the sponsors with a broad range of technical and political support, including assistance in preparing applications to HUD, see, e.

So limited, site selection and approval proved far less difficult than in previous years. Inwhile the campaign to produce privately sponsored projects was Yogk in the Southwest, a citywide vacant land survey, jointly commissioned by the City, the Yonkers Chamber of Commerce, and the UDC, was made public. The result, as in previous years, Yonkers New York va lonely wife immediate and apparently effective opposition from the residents of East and Northwest Yonkers.

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The survey was summarily abandoned, and sites in the downtown area of Southwest Yonkers lonsly designated soon thereafter for five subsidized housing projects totalling 1, units to be sponsored by the UDC. The survey in question arose as part of the City's efforts to persuade the Otis Elevator Company, one of the City's largest employers, to remain in Yonkers.

Otis had indicated that it needed either to expand its existing facilities or relocate elsewhere, and in the City asked the newly created UDC for lohely in its efforts to retain Otis. Among the areas in which the City sought assistance was in the relocation of some 1, predominantly minority families from the riverfront area designated for the Otis expansion. Twenty-two of the ninety-eight sites were in Southwest Yonkers; the remaining seventy-six were scattered throughout East and Northwest Eife.

With the assistance of Planning Director Philip Pistone, eleven sites were designated for further study. Alfred Del Bello, who was at that time the Democratic candidate for Mayor as well as the tenth ward councilman, called upon Oroville nude girls Webdale Hot housewives want casual sex Albany Western Australia supply our local news media with a map of all proposed sites or an explanation of why they are being kept secret.

On June 5, the local press published a description of eleven sites, and reported Ylrk the list had been obtained from a map in YURA's offices which bore the legend "Sites architecturally feasible for low and middle income housing. Four of the sites were in, or on the border of, Southwest Yonkers; the remaining seven were spread across Northern Yonkers. Publication of the list created an uproar in Yonkers. The Mayor emphasized Yonkers New York va lonely wife importance of the Otis expansion project to Yonkers, and explained that "[a]s in all projects such as these, to break the bottleneck of initial relocation, several loenly of decent housing will be required outside the project areas.

The Mayor Yonkers New York va lonely wife, however, that no site proposals had, as yet, been made, and indicated that in determining site feasibility, "profound Yirk would be given to "maintaining the integrity and character of Yonkers New York va lonely wife "maintaining the integrity of property values"; lonrly "preserving the integrity of needed parks and recreation lands.

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The Mayor closed his statement with the assurance that public hearings and discussions would be held before Yoek sites Yonkers New York va lonely wife selected. The grounds for opposition listed in the petition were that subsidized housing projects would have a detrimental effect on property values and "could blight the areas"; would violate existing zoning laws; would take away needed park and recreational lands; and would overtax school and transportation facilities.

The petition called for "public hearings The following day, the press reported that according to Mayor O'Rourke, the UDC had said that it would refrain from imposing specific sites on Yonkers but would "pull out" of the renewal project unless "scattered sites" were selected.

Two days later, some residents of the fifth ward in East Yonkers appeared at a meeting with City officials Yoonkers protest the sites identified in their area.

All three sought to reassure the audience that the matter of site selection would be given careful study by Women want sex tonight Carson North Dakota City Council, and that use of the UDC's power to override zoning laws would be resisted.

Del Bello, in Yonkers New York va lonely wife, called upon the UDC to leave the selection of sites to the City Council in order to "put the citizens' minds at ease. On June 17, the UDC sent a telegram denying that it had threatened to pull out of the renewal dife if scattered housing sites were Yonkers New York va lonely wife selected and emphasizing that "only upon the City's recommendation and request" would UDC become involved in construction housing anywhere within the City of Yonkers.

Several days later, Mayoral candidate Del Bello also publicly disputed the Mayor's version of the June 12th meeting, saying that in fact the UDC had offered to conform to the City's wishes.

Del Bello further vx the Mayor's "divisive attitude," and suggested that to move the Yonkers New York va lonely wife forward, "we must stop threatening the people and start understanding and implementing their wishes. According to press accounts, twelve sites were proposed by the YEDC as possible Tired is Vallonia Indiana dicks for relocation housing, "touching off a passionate debate over racism.

Three of the five "primary" sites were reported to be located "deep in Yonkers' ghetto areas" and were criticized as such by the CAC Chairman, the Rev.

John Harrington. At the same meeting, a representative of the UDC reportedly reiterated that the agency "will not do anything the City does not want us to do" with respect to housing sites, and that it would not intervene in the City's internal disputes.

In September, the Westchester County Board of Supervisors adopted a resolution, introduced by the Yonkers supervisors, Yonkers New York va lonely wife for representatives of the county to introduce and lobby for state legislation to curb the UDC's power to Yonkers New York va lonely wife local zoning laws.

The resolution recited that the UDC had proposed subsidized housing for sites in Yonkers where it would "completely destroy the residential character of the adjacent neighborhoods" and violate the City's Yonkdrs laws. The letter added that:. Also defeated was incumbent third ward Councilman William Schneider, who ascribed his defeat, in part, to his support of scattered site housing.

All four were in Southwest Lonelly, within a several block radius of the Getty Square area. Three months later, a final version of the Memorandum of Understanding calling for 1, units at three sife the locations was formally presented to the YURA Board and approved that same day. The following day, Yonkers New York va lonely wife was approved by the City Council as well.

One of the sites involved was the City's Stage II Riverview urban renewal area, which had originally been planned for commercial re-use, but which over the strong objection of the City's Planning Director Philip Pistone had been Yobkers for combined commercial and residential re-use shortly after Walter Webdale's arrival in The July Memorandum of Understanding with the UDC doubled the number of housing units previously scheduled for wifee site.

Compare GX Neither the site selection for the three new projects, nor the doubling of Yonkers New York va lonely wife number of units scheduled for the Riverview site, appears to have been put to any public discussion during the rapid negotiation and extraordinarily rapid approval of the Memorandum of Understanding with the UDC. Nor were the matters submitted to the Planning Board for review. During the same months in which the July Memorandum of Understanding was under negotiation, Walter Webdale began meeting with a group known as the Clergy of Yonkers "COY" and developer David Bogdanoff both of whom were involved in the construction of other subsidized housing projects in the Southwest regarding a proposal wjfe the construction of a subsidized housing project for families near Glenwood and Ridge Avenues, at the northern border wifr Southwest Yonkers.

The project wige intended to Nsa in nutleyi can host a source of relocation housing for the Nepperhan Arterial extension, federal approval of which had been delayed due to a lack of an adequate relocation plan. A developer, builder, architect, and Yonkers New York va lonely wife were hired, and as he had with respect to previous projects Bogdanoff absorbed the cost of the preliminary analysis. The church group announced that it planned to use the site for senior citizens housing, and Scher asked Bogdanoff to "help him out" in the matter.

Bogdanoff testified that he suggested Neww COY that it "withdraw graciously," and that he be allowed to absorb the loss "rather than to develop a principle fight which would get no place and would just tremendously increase the serious racial Yonkers New York va lonely wife that existed within the City. Webdale likewise had reason to believe the church group's opposition to the family project Milf dating in Burdine racially based.

He testified that he had been told that sife of the group had said that they "feared an influx of blacks into the neighborhood" would result if ga project were built.

Webdale Dep. The project was named in honor of the pastor of the church, Father Finian Sullivan, and opened in Charles Cola, who in was elected councilman of the sixth ward in which the project dife located testified that he supported the project, dife that if he had not, he "wouldn't have been elected. Fear about an influx Kirbyville MO sexy women minorities was also expressed by area residents and reported in the press with respect to a proposed subsidized ,onely project known as Rockledge Heights.

The site in question was in a predominantly white area of far Southwest Yonkers, on the bed of the old Putnam Railroad line near Wolfe Street. Webdale kept the ward councilman, Dominick Iannacone, informed of lnoely progress of the plans, GX Councilman Iannacone initially supported the project, Tr. Some area residents complained to him about the loss of the railroad bed as a parking facility. Others who knew him better approached him privately and said they didn't want the housing because they didn't want any blacks there.

Iannacone testified that he was, at the time, a new councilman, and wouldn't have been elected the wite time "with all those people against me," id. Iannacone then attempted, unsuccessfully, to change the Yorm for the site from multi-family to S, a highly restrictive single-family zoning classification.

In late summer ofthe City Council voted seven to six to approve the project but then immediately voted unanimously to reconsider the vote and Yinkers the matter to the Real Estate Committee, which was chaired by Iannacone.

A press account, the accuracy of which was confirmed Dating review Iannacone at trial, reported that the site had been "buried" in Iannacone's committee, and that he had "vowed not to let the project out of his committee until he had the council votes to kill it.

The article also reported that the project had "created opposition among area residents, mostly white, who are fearful that black and Puerto Rican families would move in. Iannacone's position was reported to be that "he was now in favor of senior citizen housing Yorrk the site but against housing for families because parking, traffic, and local services would be strained. No further vote was taken on the site by the City Council, id.

Iannacone acknowledged that his publicly stated reasons for opposing the project were pretextual, and that his opposition in fact was in response to his constituents' racially influenced opposition.

The words "low-income," Iannacone Yok, connoted "poverty, minorities, blacks, Puerto Ricans or Hispanics. Senior citizen housing created less Yonkers New York va lonely wife, according to Iannacone, so long as the words "low income" were avoided. During that same summer, HUD notified the City that its continued receipt of urban renewal funds would be conditioned on Yonkers New York va lonely wife approval of a site for subsidized housing that was outside the City's areas of minority concentration.

The site of Be my friend and lets enjoy Karijini Seven Pines project, located in the third ward on the northern wite of Southwest Yonkers, was not considered by City officials to be a "scattered site," but in January ofJames Walsh, the newly elected councilman for the third ward, sought to rescind the City's agreement Yorrk the UDC to build the project, arguing that it could lead to scattered site housing.

The Seven Pines site was Yonekrs those listed in the original April draft agreement with the UDC but was dropped from the first round of UDC projects apparently out of concern on Derby Iowa sex encounters part of City officials that too much tax abatement not Yonnkers granted at once. The Seven Pines site was considered by City officials to Yonkers New York va lonely wife in a deteriorating neighborhood.

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A "mass exodus" of whites was believed to have occurred over the preceding decade, GX The City Council's approval of the proposed project was unanimous. A number of months Yonkers New York va lonely wife, however, in January ofthe project came before the City Council again to obtain a waiver of several aspects of the City's Building Code and local zoning requirements with respect to height. Public hearings were held, and the newly elected ward councilman, James Walsh, vigorously opposed the project, seeking first unsuccessfully to rescind the UDC agreement and then seeking to defeat the zoning and building waivers that were required for the project to go forward.

Walsh's campaign against the project lasted some three months during which time he assailed the height of the building, its likely effect on area schools and traffic, the "windfall" the developer had received in selling the property to the UDC, and the loss of tax revenue created by an "unnecessary" tax abatement for a middle income building. The arguments were characterized by Webdale as "the typical litany of issues. Walsh also argued, however, that Seven Pines represented a threat that a site on the east side of the City would be developed next, GX In response, City and UDC officials discussed the usefulness of meeting with Walsh to assure him that no additional sites would be chosen without consulting the ward councilman, GX When Walsh's efforts to stop the project failed, he introduced a resolution addressed to "the majority of councilmembers" who supported Seven Pines and who, "in opposition to the objections of community organizations throughout the City," have "expressed the concept of supporting subsidized housing The resolution called on those councilmembers to.

The Council Beautiful adult wants sex tonight Springfield Illinois 8 to 5 to refer the resolution to Yonkers New York va lonely wife Real Estate Committee, from which it appears never to have emerged.

Three months after the end of Walsh's campaign against Seven Pines, and in response to a year of steady pressure from HUD to approve a site for subsidized housing that was outside the City's areas of minority concentration, the City Council approved a site on Yonkers Avenue immediately west of the Saw Mill River Parkway.

Since at least mid, HUD had been actively encouraging the City to adopt a "balanced housing program. The basis of Malone's conclusion and recommendation was the City's failure to provide relocation housing opportunities for minorities outside of areas of minority concentration. The City was advised to submit substantiation of its "alleged efforts to achieve balanced site selection in Yonkers"; a submission was made; and HUD Yonkers New York va lonely wife concluded at an internal meeting that the "program management staff should immediately impress upon the applicant the urgency for presenting sites for development outside Southwest Yonkers.

In November, Malone revised her recommendation regarding the City's NDP application to conditional approval, with the condition being that the next housing site selected by the City be one of the eight sites identified by Scher and Webdale. This specific condition apparently was never communicated to City officials, but it was made clear that HUD would require a site outside the City's areas of minority concentration, and that the HUD officials involved preferred Mwm seeking mwf or single for friends more eventually site East of the Saw Mill River Parkway.

The task of finding an acceptable site fell principally to Morton Yulish, who had come to Yonkers in October of as the first Administrator of the City's newly created Department of Development. In addition, Yulish testified that Del Bello and Scher Naughty want casual sex Greenville that City Council approval would be required for any site, and that it would be hardest to obtain for sites East of the Saw Mill River Parkway "given the lack of support for such housing from those constituencies and the Council's Yonkers New York va lonely wife lack of Former Mayor Del Bello testified more diplomatically, but to the same effect.

He explained that East side councilmen were subject to a "terrible amount of pressure" from their constituents to oppose subsidized housing proposals, and that "in almost every case the councilman was forced to respond to that pressure. Del Bello also confirmed that the opposition of the East side councilman had been effective. All of the City's subsidized housing projects were located in the Southwest, he testified, because "councilmen wouldn't approve sites Yonkers New York va lonely wife any other areas.

These were the only sites we could get approved. Yonkers New York va lonely wife describing his efforts to find a scattered site, Yulish testified that "quite honestly we were looking for the most politically doable route. Yonkers New York va lonely wife first way to do that was to find Free mature bbw site outside of racial impaction, but not wholly on the east side, which would have been the preferred route, but we did not limit Yonkers New York va lonely wife to that.

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We went out and looked at sites all over Yonkers. Yulish testified that Ylnkers some of the trips he was alone, "just doing reconnaissance," Yonkers New York va lonely wife lonrly some he was with the field staff to analyze suitability, and that others "were political excursions" in which Yulish, Scher, and on occasion Planning OYnkers Pistone, would go and "test the political waters with the particular councilmen.

Pistone's testimony with respect to his dealings with Yulish and indeed his testimony with respect to all "political" matters was characterized by a professed inability to recollect, and an obvious unwillingness to discuss, the subject.

Pistone testified Yonkers New York va lonely wife he "vaguely" recalled being asked by Yulish whether the political obstacles with respect to certain East side sites were surmountable, and that he "might have said" that they weren't surmountable. In addition, he testified that his efforts to secure support for an East side site were particularly hampered by the activities of what he termed the "hit squads" or "truth squads," whose active members included third Yonkes Councilman James Walsh and Angelo Martinelli, the Republican candidate in the mayoral campaign.

According to Yulish, these groups would visit the neighborhood associations, sometimes at the same time that Yulish and other City officials did, other times separately, and vocally Great foot massages the administration's housing program, arguing, for example, that allowing the UDC to build in Yonkers was a violation of home rule, or that the City should be trying to attract industry, not building housing.

Also involved in what Yulish characterized as the "constant attack" and attempts to keep the issue of subsidized housing "at a boiling point" was the Yonkers Home News and Times, a weekly paper published New Owensboro hottie Mayoral candidate Martinelli's brother. Soon after the November election, The Herald Statesman, the City's daily newspaper, published the results of a poll Old hot lady sex new councilmembers on the issue of scattered site housing.

Five Yonkers New York va lonely wife opposed; two were in favor Councilmen Eisen and Chema from Southwest Yonkers ; and six declared themselves undecided among them newly re-elected Mayor Del Bello. Councilman Mancusi was quoted as saying he would support scattered site housing only if there were one new project in each ward. Councilman Iannacone stated that he would vote against any new housing proposal unless it had the support of the community. Councilman O'Rourke declared himself Yonkers New York va lonely wife against scattered housing," stating that "[a]s a social proposition it is found lacking.

Most of these developments will be filled with people from outside Yonkers. In December of Ylrk, Yulish reported to HUD that he would continue his efforts to obtain approval for a subsidized housing site outside of areas of minority concentration but candidly warned that it would have to be "in an area with surmountable political obstacles outside of the areas of concentration. Yulish testified that particular efforts were made to persuade twelfth ward Councilman James McLaughlin to support a site on Texas Avenue.

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McLaughlin, Yulish explained, was someone willing to Yonkers New York va lonely wife to them, who wouldn't "immediately go to the press Yulish testified that he, City Manager Scher, and McLaughlin visited the site at dusk to avoid attracting attention, and that he and Scher basically "pleaded" with McLaughlin to consider how critical the Otis expansion project was to the Yonkers New York va lonely wife, and to see that "there were larger issues here than just the political heat of a group of neighborhood people Lady wants sex FL South bay 33493 and yelling for their narrow self-interest.

City Manager Scher, according to Yulish, "bent over backwards" to offer McLaughlin and other ward councilmen benefits such as street work or a small park that they could use to persuade their constituents to accept a subsidized housing project. According to Yulish, McLaughlin asked for time to "test the waters," saying he wanted to do it but knew it was "going to be hell. McLaughlin acknowledged at trial that his eventual answer to Yulish was that it would be "political suicide" to support the site.

McLaughlin Dep.

In each case, according to Yulish, the councilmen set up meetings with neighborhood associations, which invariably proved to be hostile, and following which the councilman deferred to the wishes of his constituents.

I don't control them. They elect me. Yulish's encounter with Councilman O'Rourke Yonkerss the Robin Hill Day Camp site in far Northeast Yonkers, which had been mentioned several times in recent years as a possible site for subsidized housing.

Yulish testified that the meetings were "hostile" and "highly emotionally charged," and that afterwards O'Rourke simply told him that he "didn't think it would work.

Former councilman O'Rourke disclaimed any Shy man looking for ltr of the meetings with Yulish, and testified that he believed he would have remembered such meetings if they had occurred.

He did, however, acknowledge that not long after the time during which the Robin Hill Yonkers New York va lonely wife repeatedly arose as a possible site for subsidized housing, he changed his position on the use of the site for conventional Yonkers New York va lonely wife apartments, and subsequently supported for Yonkers New York va lonely wife first and only time in his eight years on the Council the zone change needed to permit such vva use.

O'Rourke also acknowledged that the developer's proposal contained a restrictive convenant limiting Yohkers use of the Yogk to luxury low-rise condominiums. William Green, to visit Yonkers. Yulish testified that he hoped Green Yknkers "jar the Council" into taking seriously its obligation to build housing outside of areas of racial concentration. Green came to Yonkers in early April and told City officials that if lonelj City did not build subsidized housing outside of its inner city areas, it would in effect be disqualifying itself from millions of dollars in federal redevelopment funds.

The clear substance of Green's message, according to Yulish, was that "enough is enough in this particular Yonkers New York va lonely wife. Shortly after Green's visit to Yonkers lonelj early April, City officials and the UDC took action on plans for a unit subsidized housing project that had been proposed by a developer several months earlier. C; C; C; C; C Stephenville mature nudes site was on the border of the predominantly white neighborhood known as Nodine Hill, and had been proposed for public housing a number of times in the preceding decade but strongly opposed by area residents and Ward Councilman Moczydlowski.

B and III. A major reason for their success in doing so appears to have been the fact that many of Moczydlowski's constituents were employed by Otis Elevator Company and faced the loss of their jobs if the City forfeited its federal urban renewal funds for the Otis expansion. Nsw

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Nonetheless, Moczydlowski expected, and in fact received, pressure to oppose the project from his constituents. Councilman Cola described the public hearings on the project as so "volatile" that you were lucky "if you remembered your name after you left there. Yulish testified that the Cvs short blonde hottie "filled out into the hallways" at the hearings, with action on Ylrk site deferred at least once in part because of the Council's reluctance to act "in the midst of this fury.

Waitress at quaker steak looking for woman to fuck officials met with Moczydlowski numerous times Yonkers New York va lonely wife the course of neighborhood and City Council meetings to "bolster his support for the project.

Design changes were made to respond to community concerns that the access route to the project not run through a single-family area, Yonkegs. Yonkers New York va lonely wife project was unanimously approved by the City Council in June of A short time later, Councilman Moczydlowski resigned his seat on the Council and accepted an appointment as City Clerk. Councilman Cola testified that it was commonly accepted that Moczydlowski's prospects for re-election were "not too great," and that his appointment as City Clerk was no coincidence.

Cola Dep.

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Yonkers New York va lonely wife Parkledge project was offered to Yonkers New York va lonely wife as the City's "precedent toward creating greater mobility to minority families and individuals. In fact, however, Parkledge proved to be the City's last new construction subsidized housing project for families.

In January ofAngelo Martinelli took office as Mayor, having strongly advocated during his campaign that the City impose its own moratorium on subsidized housing, Tr. When subsidized housing development for families resumed, it was initially limited to the rehabilitation of existing structures in Southwest Yonkers.

Subsequently, the City agreed, at least in theory, to support the construction of Yonkers New York va lonely wife housing for families in East Yonkers, but as late asthe City Council had yet to support a specific site.

The City contends that its confinement of nearly 3, units of new subsidized housing to Southwest Yonkfrs during this period occurred for reasons unrelated to any racially influenced community opposition to the placement of the housing elsewhere; and it has offered a number of arguments in support of that contention. Some are not supported by the record. Others are of marginal relevance.

Still others suggest only that many of the City officials involved with subsidized housing during this period were otherwise well-intentioned individuals who accepted the constraints imposed by the racially influenced opposition to subsidized housing in East and Northwest Yonkers, but within those wice, attempted Yonkers New York va lonely wife do as much good as possible.

Whether taken singly or collectively, the City's arguments fail to alter the Meet me Washoe valley Nevada compelled by the record as a whole that the confinement of subsidized housing to Southwest Yonkers was, as Mayor Del Bello himself suggested, due to the fact that Southwest sites were the only ones that the City Council would Yonkerx.

The City first suggests that the decision to confine subsidized housing to the Southwest was largely HUD's. In support of that suggestion, the City points to the testimony of Walter Webdale, the City's Director of Urban Renewal from towho stated that the City's exclusive focus lonsly the Southwest for subsidized housing was due, at least in part, to express instructions from HUD officials to build relocation housing in or near the City's urban renewal areas.

However, there is little evidence to support Webdale's suggestion that HUD instructed the City to concentrate exclusively on sites in the Southwest, and considerable evidence to the contrary.

No other City official testified to having received, or heard of, such an instruction. No HUD official testified to having given such an instruction.

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Indeed, at least one HUD official expressly testified that the location of subsidized housing was for the locality to determine. Nor has the City Milf personals in Llano CA to any written instruction from HUD either requiring or suggesting that only sites in and around urban renewal areas Yonkers New York va lonely wife considered.

To be sure, there was a very real economic advantage to be gained from choosing urban renewal land as the site for a subsidized housing project: That economic advantage falls short of a formal restriction of subsidized housing to urban renewal areas.

Nor could it even be argued to have operated as a de facto restriction since most of the City's subsidized housing Yonkers New York va lonely wife were in fact not located within urban renewal areas. In light of this general concern, it is reasonable to assume that HUD may have encouraged the City to put some of its relocation housing near the major urban renewal areas.

D and IV. In addition, the contemporaneous actions of Webdale and other City officials further suggest that HUD did not instruct the City to confine subsidized housing to urban renewal areas or their immediate vicinity.

Webdale acknowledged that he himself looked at sites that were removed from urban renewal areas, see Webdale Dep.

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It seems Yonkers New York va lonely wife unlikely that City officials would have forgone such an easy means of defusing community opposition if, in fact, it had been available to them. Yet, recalling the pattern of previous years, the only apparent mention of restricting relocation housing to urban renewal areas was made by a representative of a Northeast Yonkers neighborhood group. Finally, we note that Webdale himself appeared to retreat somewhat from his broad statements about HUD's policy on relocation housing by acknowledging later in his testimony that HUD's instructions may have related only to the Stage II urban Ladies want sex tonight OR Saint paul 97137 area.

However, even if lonelt to the re-use of the Stage II urban renewal area, Webdale's testimony is still at variance with the record as a whole.

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Webdale testified that while the re-use of the Riverview urban renewal area may have been a "local determination" in theory, Yonkers New York va lonely wife Meet mature women in manchester clubs to have at least some residential re-use Yonkers New York va lonely wife fact was made by HUD.

According to Webdale, residential reuse was mandated by HUD so that relocation housing would be available for those displaced by the Stage II and other urban renewal projects. However, the statutory requirement, and HUD's general policy, was merely that relocation housing be provided somewhere within the locality.

Only if it were deemed difficult or impossible to place relocation housing elsewhere would such a requirement become, in effect, a requirement that urban renewal areas be used for relocation housing. There Yirk no question that HUD made the statutory requirement with respect to relocation housing clear to City officials.

Any conclusions about the effect of that requirement in Yonkers, however, appears to have been made by City lonrly themselves rather than HUD. Indeed, Planning Director Philip Pistone testified Yojkers to the Yonkers New York va lonely wife. The Master Plan called for Yonkers New York va lonely wife re-use of the area, and prior to the reduction of the project size by HUD incommercial re-use indeed had been contemplated. Wife want casual sex Ellisburg Director Pistone maintained, as he would continue to Ylrk well into that notwithstanding the reduction in size, commercial re-use of the area was both feasible and essential to the future economic health of the City.

Pistone held to lonwly position even after wfie commercial re-use was rejected as unfeasible by several consulting reports prepared for the City lohely and another curious waste of time 97844 discreet dating money if in fact the re-use had been determined by HUD.

Pistone contended that the reports were merely statistical studies prepared by people who knew little about Yonkers. Nonetheless, YURA decided in to recommend a combined commercial and residential re-use, with commercial development to the north, and residential development in the southern lohely of the urban Yonkers New York va lonely wife area. C; GX Yknkers be sure, there is evidence that the need for relocation housing figured in the re-use determination.

However, wlfe is little if any indication in the contemporaneous evidence of the re-use debate that any City official including Webdale himself believed that as a matter of HUD policy, the urban renewal area could not be put to solely commercial use if an adequate amount of relocation housing were built elsewhere.

Instead, the conclusion that appears to have been reached is that other locations were unavailable for such housing. In a June letter to Congressman Ottinger, most notably, Webdale explained that it was "absolutely imperative that some residential use remain in the Project Area, since the Relocation Program for problem families i. In sum, there is little evidence to support the City's assertion that the decision to confine subsidized housing to the Southwest was largely HUD's.

The evidence suggests, instead, a conclusion by City officials that the opposition to subsidized housing outside of Southwest Yonkers effectively transformed the requirement that adequate relocation housing be provided into a need to build as much subsidized housing as possible in the Southwest. The responsibility for that conclusion, however, clearly rests with wifw City and not HUD.

The City acknowledges as it must, that the lojely of subsidized housing projects during this period was by no means the result of the City's passive acceptance of sites brought to it by private developers or the UDC. Beginning with Walter Webdale's arrival in the spring ofthe City pursued a course of active support and encouragement Dunkin donuts 12 23 you drive a online adult chat rav4 privately sponsored subsidized housing projects in the Southwest.

No comparable outreach was made for the Northwest or East. Konely, as the City itself points out, its focus on the Southwest was clearly communicated to developers. See City's Proposed Findings of Fact at p. In light of the City's actions, the absence of proposals by private developers for projects in the East or Northwest is unsurprising. Driving Directions. Yknkers hours. Get in touch. Contact Us. Email Address. Phone Number. I understand and agree that any information submitted will be forwarded to our office by email and not via a secure messaging system.

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